Many years later, in 1575, another precursor of criminology emerged: forensic medicine, initiated by the Frenchman Ambroise Paré and developed by Paolo Sacchias in 1651. Some of the first practical applications of fingerprint research are attributed to the Chinese, who applied it daily in their businesses and legal ventures, while the Western world was in the period known as the Dark Ages. Kia Kung-Yen, a Chinese historian of the Tang Dynasty, mentioned fingerprint identification in his 650 writings in a commentary on an ancient method of drafting legal documents. It follows that already in the year 650 fingerprints were used in their business relationships, and in the same year they referred to the method before the use of fingerprints, which consisted in the use of wooden panels with the same notches cut in the same places on the sides that the parts kept and balanced, so that these tables can be checked for the authenticity or falsehood of the contracts. Reference.  “to authorize, in the cases provided for by law, criminal investigation procedures to be conducted by the scientific, criminal and criminological investigation body, as well as by bodies with special competence and assistance in criminal investigations, which are obliged to inform the Public Prosecutor`s Office of their findings within the prescribed time limits or, failing that, within the time limits provided for by law”. In 1823, a treatise by the Czech anatomist, physiologist and botanist Jan Evangelista Purkyně described the types of fingerprints, which he divided into 9 groups. In the same year, Huschke discovered the triangular reliefs known as “deltas” of fingerprints. In 1835, another precursor of ballistics, Henry Goddard, appeared. Toxicology was born in 1840 with the Spanish physician Mateo Orfila. It is science that studies the effects of plant, animal and mineral toxins or poisons both as a healing treatment and as harmful poisoning. The contribution of this science to the reconstruction of murders, homicides and suicides is enormous. William Herschel introduced the use of fingerprints in 1858 to prevent identity theft.
The basic principles of criminal trial include: Decades later, Dick Tracy`s comic also included a detective who used a considerable number of forensic methods, although the methods are sometimes more imaginative than real. Alfonso Bertillón created the Judicial Identification Service in Paris in 1882, which became known in 1885 and officially adopted in 1888. This anthropometric method was based on capturing and measuring the different bone and chromatic characteristics of people over the age of 21 in 11 different parts of the body. At that time, Bertillón published a thesis on the spoken portrait. From 1884, Bertillón photographed the sites of the events with all their evidence. But it was in 1886 that Allan Pinkerton, owner of the world`s largest detective agency, took the crime photograph to recognize the criminals. In London, Sir Francis Galton (1885) laid the foundation for solving the problem of fingerprint classification. In 1905, he modified his system mentioned in fingerprint Directories. The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, which means “to belong to or refer to the forum”.  In ancient Rome, a criminal charge was aimed at presenting the case to a group of well-known people in the Forum.
Both the person accused of committing the offence and the complainant had to explain their version of the facts. Each person`s reasoning, evidence and behaviour determined the verdict or sentence of the case. In 1809, the famous French criminal Vidocq was accepted into the ranks of the French police and soon became the first director of the National Security. It contained a variety of advances in the field of criminal investigations. He is credited with recording and preparing dossiers with case studies and introducing ballistic studies. He was the first to use mold to collect traces of the crime scene and define lofoscopy. His anthropometric techniques will have a major impact. “Order and direct the criminal investigation into the commission of the criminal acts in order to register their commission with all the circumstances that may affect the qualification and responsibility of the perpetrators and other participants, as well as the seizure of the active and passive objects related to the commission.”